Friday, January 09, 2009

Platone predice Cristo

Scrive Platone che l'uomo sommamente giusto deve essere

" (...) un uomo semplice e nobile il quale, come dice Eschilo, - non vuole sembrare, ma essere buono. Bisogna dunque togliergli l'apparenza della giustizia; giacche' se apparra' esser giusto, avra' onori e doni per l'apparir egli tale, e non risulterebbe chiaro se fosse giusto per amor della giustizia o dei doni e degli onori. Percio' va spogliato di tutto fuorche' della giustizia stessa: (...) abbia egli massima fama di ingiustizia, affinche' sia messo alla prova (...); vada innanzi irremovibile sino alla morte, sembrando per tutta la vita essere ingiusto ed essendo invece giusto (...): flagellato, torturato, legato, gli saranno bruciati gli occhi, e infine, dopo aver sofferto ogni martirio, sara' crocifisso " ( Platone, La Repubblica, libro IIー, n. 165-220, Sansoni 1970, p.46-48).

Questo ragionamento, scritto ben quattrocento anni prima di Cristo, non puo' non commuovere ogni cristiano. Qui il pensiero filosofico, nel suo estremo sforzo razionale, teso a comprendere come possa essere collaudata la rettitudine di un uomo perfettamente giusto, riesce ad intuire e a presagire che il perfetto giusto, nel mondo, non potra' che essere il giusto crocifisso, il quale accetta di subire ogni ingiustizia unicamente per amore della giustizia. Il massimo sforzo del pensiero razionale si incontra con la follia della croce: l'uomo perfetto e quindi l'uomo senza peccato puo' essere soltanto l'uomo della croce ed e' la croce, accettata per amore della verita' a rivelare la perfezione dell'uomo.

Now, if we are to form a real judgment of the life of the just and unjust, we must isolate them; there is no other way; and how is the isolation to be effected? I answer: Let the unjust man be entirely unjust, and the just man entirely just; nothing is to be taken away from either of them, and both are to be perfectly furnished for the work of their respective lives. First, let the unjust be like other distinguished masters of craft; like the skilful pilot or physician, who knows intuitively his own powers and keeps within their limits, and who, if he fails at any point, is able to recover himself. So let the unjust make his unjust attempts in the right way, and lie hidden if he means to be great in his injustice (he who is found out is nobody): for the highest reach of injustice is: to be deemed just when you are not. Therefore I say that in the perfectly unjust man we must assume the most perfect injustice; there is to be no deduction, but we must allow him, while doing the most unjust acts, to have acquired the greatest reputation for justice. If he have taken a false step he must be able to recover himself; he must be one who can speak with effect, if any of his deeds come to light, and who can force his way where force is required his courage and strength, and command of money and friends. And at his side let us place the just man in his nobleness and simplicity, wishing, as Aeschylus says, to be and not to seem good. There must be no seeming, for if he seem to be just he will be honoured and rewarded, and then we shall not know whether he is just for the sake of justice or for the sake of honours and rewards; therefore, let him be clothed in justice only, and have no other covering; and he must be imagined in a state of life the opposite of the former. Let him be the best of men, and let him be thought the worst; then he will have been put to the proof; and we shall see whether he will be affected by the fear of infamy and its consequences. And let him continue thus to the hour of death; being just and seeming to be unjust. When both have reached the uttermost extreme, the one of justice and the other of injustice, let judgment be given which of them is the happier of the two.
Socrates - GLAUCON
Heavens! my dear Glaucon, I said, how energetically you polish them up for the decision, first one and then the other, as if they were two statues.
I do my best, he said. And now that we know what they are like there is no difficulty in tracing out the sort of life which awaits either of them. This I will proceed to describe; but as you may think the description a little too coarse, I ask you to suppose, Socrates, that the words which follow are not mine. --Let me put them into the mouths of the eulogists of injustice: They will tell you that the just man who is thought unjust will be scourged, racked, bound --will have his eyes burnt out; and, at last, after suffering every kind of evil, he will be impaled: Then he will understand that he ought to seem only, and not to be, just; the words of Aeschylus may be more truly spoken of the unjust than of the just. For the unjust is pursuing a reality; he does not live with a view to appearances --he wants to be really unjust and not to seem only:--

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